Cleaning is not the same as disinfecting or sanitizing. Cleaning may and should occur before disinfecting or sanitizing surfaces. Cleaning is the removal of all foreign material from objects by using water and detergents, soaps, enzymes and the mechanical action of washing or scrubbing the object. Disinfection/sterilization cannot be accomplished if soil removal is inadequate
Talking about cleaning results, the following terms are used to define the degree of cleanliness:
- Physical cleanliness – removal of all visible dirt from the surface
- Chemical cleanliness – removal not only of all visible dirt but also of microscopic residues that can be detected by taste or smell but are not visible to the naked eye
- Bacteriological cleanliness – attained by disinfection
- Sterile cleanliness – destruction of all microorganisms
Cleaning is the process of removing food and other types of soil from a surface, such as a
dish, glass, or cutting board. Cleaning is done with a cleaning agent that removes food, soil, or
other substances. The right cleaning agent must be selected because not all cleaning agents can
be used on food-contact surfaces. (A food-contact surface is the surface of equipment or utensil
that food normally comes into contact.) For example, glass cleaners, some metal cleaners, and
most bathroom cleaners cannot be used because they might leave an unsafe residue on the foodcontact
surface. The label should indicate if the product can be used on a food-contact surface.
The right cleaning agent must also be selected to make cleaning easy. Cleaning agents
are divided into four categories:
• Detergents – Use detergents to routinely wash tableware, surfaces, and equipment.
Detergents can penetrate soil quickly and soften it. Examples include dishwashing
detergent and automatic dishwasher detergents.
• Solvent cleaners – Use periodically on surfaces where grease has burned on. Solvent
cleaners are often called degreasers.
• Acid cleaners — Use periodically on mineral deposits and other soils that detergents
cannot remove. These cleaners are often used to remove scale in warewashing machines
and steam tables.
• Abrasive cleaners — Use these cleaners to remove heavy accumulations of soil that are
difficult to remove with detergents. Some abrasive cleaners also disinfect.
Clean food-contact surfaces that are used to prepare potentially hazardous foods as
needed throughout the day but no less than every four hours. If they are not properly cleaned,
food that comes into contact with these surfaces could become contaminated.
Disinfection is the process of elimination of most pathogenic microorganisms on
inanimate objects. Disinfection can be achieved by physical or chemical methods. Chemicals used in disinfection
are called disinfectants. Different disinfectants have different target ranges, not all disinfectants can kill all
microorganisms. Some methods of disinfection such as filtration do not kill bacteria
CHEMICAL METHODS OF DISINFECTION:
Disinfectants are those chemicals that destroy pathogenic bacteria from inanimate surfaces. Some chemical have
very narrow spectrum of activity . Those chemicals that can be safely applied over skin and mucus membranes are called antiseptics.
An ideal antiseptic or disinfectant should have following properties:
- Should have wide spectrum of activity
- Should be able to destroy microbes within practical period of time
- Should be active in the presence of organic matter
- Should make effective contact and be wettable
- Should be active in any pH
- Should be stable
- Should have long shelf life
- Should be speedy
- Should have high penetrating power
- Should be non-toxic, non-allergenic, non-irritative or non-corrosive
- Should not have bad odour
- Should not leave non-volatile residue or stain
- Efficacy should not be lost on reasonable dilution
- Should not be expensive and must be available easily